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Victor Martin
Victor Martin

Buy Clenbuterol For Horses

Clenbuterol HCl is a beta-2-adrenoceptor agonist; it is the only FDA-approved medication for horses with reversible bronchospasm and is often used to treat horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD) and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, commonly known as heaves).1 Although clenbuterol is often referenced as such, it is not a steroidal medication, but does possess some properties similar to those of anabolic steroids, such as promoting an increase in muscle mass. Due to these properties, clenbuterol has been used (in livestock and horse pharmacy applications) to increase lean muscle mass.

buy clenbuterol for horses

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Clenbuterol is both a decongestant and a bronchodilator. Decongestants thin the blood to reduce blood pressure, while bronchodilators widen the vessels that carry oxygen, so the volume of oxygen in the blood increases. In some European and Latin American countries, clenbuterol is approved as an asthma drug for humans, but it has been banned for this purpose in the United States.

As with other β2 agonists, clenbuterol is believed to act by stimulating production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) through the activation of adenyl cyclase. β2 agonists produce more smooth muscle relaxation activity (ie, bronchial, vascular, uterine smooth muscle) than cardiac effects (β1). Clenbuterol appears to have secondary modes of action in horses, as it can inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α) from macrophages, increase mucociliary clearance, and reduce mucus production.2 Clenbuterol reduces the number and responsiveness of β2 receptors, but concurrent dexamethasone can prevent this effect.3

Clenbuterol has anabolic activity in humans and cattle. In horses, it can increase muscle mass, but any performance increases are offset by a negative ergonomic effect. The drug attenuates skeletal muscle changes (eg, heave lines) in horses with severe equine asthma (SEA). Clenbuterol has also been shown to decrease body fat percentage.2

In one study, when clenbuterol was administered IV to healthy horses, aerobic capacity was not improved, insulin levels were increased, and treadmill velocities for defined heart rates were reduced as compared with the control group. In a low-dose study, clenbuterol administration at 0.8 μg/kg every 12 hours for 14 days improved cardiac function in horses with SEA. Chronic administration of clenbuterol in horses can cause decreased aerobic performance, which may be due to effects on thermoregulation. Chronic clenbuterol administration in combination with exercise training has been known to diminish immune function by reducing numbers of monocytes and CD8+ T cells.2,3

The varying observations about the efficacy of clenbuterol in horses with COPD can be understood if one considers a) the relationship between lung function and clinical signs, and b) the pharmacology of clenbuterol. In COPD-affected horses with severe airway obstruction, measurable improvements in lung function can occur without a noticeable clinical improvement.5 When clenbuterol was administered intravenously and its effect was measured shortly thereafter, i.e., when plasma concentrations were high, the improvement in lung function was significant.

Drug side effects are unlikely with clenbuterol, but occasionally include muscle tremors, sweating, restlessness, urticaria, tachycardia, and ataxia, particularly early in the course of therapy. Creatine kinase elevations have been noted in some horses. A few studies performed in rats have shown small doses of clenbuterol to cause skeletal and cardiac muscle apoptosis. Studies in horses have not shown this adverse effect. One study found that 0.8 μg/kg PO twice daily for 21 days resulted in significant decreases in body fat with no loss in body weight. Adverse effects such as muscle tremors, tachycardia, and electrolyte abnormalities have been observed in humans after ingestion of animals that have been treated with clenbuterol.2

In horses, for management of airway obstruction, dosages of clenbuterol are as follows: Initially, 0.8 μg/kg PO twice daily for 3 days; if no improvement is noted, dose can be increased to 1.6 μg/kg PO twice daily for 3 days; if no improvement is observed, dose can be increased to 2.4 μg/kg PO twice daily for 3 days; if no improvement is noted, can be increased to 3.2 μg/kg PO twice daily for 3 days; if no improvement is noted, therapy should be discontinued. Recommended duration of therapy is 30 days, then it should be withdrawn and therapy re-evaluated.2

Clenbuterol hydrochloride is a β2-adrenergic agonist that is used in horses as a short-term bronchodilator. In the short-term, it is typically employed in the management of airway obstruction (eg, severe equine asthma [SEA], formerly known as recurrent airway obstruction [RAO]).1 It is also used in the treatment of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, also known as "heaves"). Clenbuterol is also occasionally used as a uterine relaxant for dystocia in equines. Clenbuterol works by relaxing the smooth muscles surrounding the airways and opening the passages, and also serves to loosen excess mucus.

In May of 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a branded variety of clenbuterol syrup for use in horses. No other uses for clenbuterol were approved; all other uses in horses or other animals are extra-label, and the drug was not approved for use in humans. In fact, due to toxic side effects, clenbuterol, which was previously given to livestock to increase lean muscle mass and livestock production, is now banned in the U.S. for use in food animals.

Despite the legal and toxicity issues connected with its use outside veterinary medicine, clenbuterol has become popular among those who wish to lose weight, and among athletes, particularly those involved in professional bodybuilding.

Clenbuterol (which is also called "clen" in the athletic community) is considered a performance-enhancing drug and has been banned from most athletic competitions. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency and the International Olympic Committee include clenbuterol on their lists of prohibited drugs.2 Despite these bans, athletes continue using clenbuterol for its ability to help burn fat, build muscle, and improve performance.

Since clenbuterol has some properties similar to anabolic steroids, it is claimed to increase muscle mass. Because of this, bodybuilders and athletes sometimes take the oral or injectable forms. It has also been reported to reduce body fat, making it a popular weight loss supplement. Unfortunately, studies that support these claims of desirable effects on muscle and fat have only involved livestock and experimental animals such as mice and rats. Studies in humans have not shown similar benefits.4

The risks of misusing a drug like clenbuterol include its lack of proven effectiveness and its hazardous side effects. Clenbuterol is known to cause symptoms such as rapid heart rate (tachycardia), palpitations, tremors, anxiety, lowered blood potassium (hypokalemia), and elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Adverse effects are more likely to occur with the large doses used for performance enhancement and weight loss, which often run about 5 to10 times higher than the regular adult doses of albuterol (the FDA-approved bronchodilator for humans).

Because clenbuterol has a long half-life in the body, toxic symptoms can last from 1 to 8 days. In published reports, over 80% of people who developed toxic effects required care in a hospital.5 The medical literature contains numerous reports of patients with symptoms ranging from agitation and rapid heart rate all the way to seizures and cardiac arrest after swallowing abnormally large clenbuterol doses.

Unlike anabolic steroids, clenbuterol is not a controlled substance.2 However, clenbuterol has been identified as an adulterant in street drugs such as heroin. After snorting or injecting heroin contaminated with clenbuterol, some patients have reported painful muscle spasms, agitation, and overactive reflexes. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 26 cases of clenbuterol poisoning among heroin users. They were hospitalized with symptoms such as rapid heart rate, palpitations, hypokalemia, chest pain, and agitation. Most were kept in the hospital for 5 days where they received intravenous fluids, potassium, and medications to slow down the heart. It is likely that many such cases go unreported because patients are afraid to seek medical care or health care providers might not recognize the symptoms of clenbuterol poisoning in illicit drug users.4

Clenbuterol is a beta(2)-agonist and potent selective bronchodilator that is used to treat bronchospasm in the horse. The drug is normally administered to horses orally as a syrup formulation. Once absorbed into the systemic circulation, clenbuterol has the potential to cause many side effects, including a repartitioning effect and major alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Recent studies have also reported that clenbuterol can affect bone and the immune, endocrine and reproductive systems. A great deal of information has been published on the beneficial effects of short term therapeutic doses of clenbuterol on the equine respiratory system, although there is limited information about chronic administration, particularly since this has been associated with adverse physiological effects on other systems. This review summarizes the relevant understanding of clenbuterol for clinicians and horse owners who may administer this drug to pleasure and performance horses.

Testing of nearly 100 Thoroughbreds previously raced by trainers indicted in March on performance-enhancing drug charges indicated that 77% showed the presence of clenbuterol, according to Dr. Scott Palmer, the equine medical director for the New York State Gaming Commission.

Trainers Jorge Navarro and Jason Servis are two of the most prominent people accused of using and distributing misbranded drugs. Their horses, who were required by racing authorities to join other stables, were tested following the indictments this spring before the horses were eventually allowed to return to competition. 041b061a72


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